Periodic Table in chemistry is an orderly arrangement of all the chemical elements in order of increasing atomic number—that is, the total number of protons in the atomic nucleus.
When the chemical elements are grouped in this manner, there is a recurring pattern in their properties known as the “periodic law,” in which elements in the same column (group) exhibit comparable qualities.
What is a Periodic Table?
The periodic table, commonly known as the periodic table of elements, is a systematic listing of the 118 known chemical elements.
The chemical elements are ordered from left to right and top to bottom by increasing atomic number, or the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus, which generally corresponds to increasing atomic mass.
According to Los Alamos National Laboratory, the horizontal rows of the periodic table are called periods, and each period number specifies the number of orbitals for the elements in that row.
(Atoms have protons and neutrons in their nucleus, and their electrons are placed in orbitals around them; an atomic orbital is a mathematical phrase that explains the location of an electron as well as its wave-like activity.)
Period 1 elements, for example, have one atomic orbital where electrons spin; period 2 elements have two atomic orbitals, period 3 elements have three, and so on up to period 7.
The periodic table’s columns, or groups, depict atomic elements with the same number of valence electrons, or electrons in the outermost orbital shell.
According to chemist William Reusch’s homepage at Michigan State University, elements in Group 8A (or VIIIA) all have a full set of eight electrons in the highest-energy orbital
Elements in the same column of the periodic table (referred to as a “group”) have identical valence electron configurations and so react chemically similarly.
For example, all of the elements in Group 18 are inert gases, which means they do not react with any other elements.
Important Takeaways: Periodic Table
- The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of chemical elements organised by increasing atomic number and groupings elements based on repeating qualities.
- Periods are the seven rows of the periodic table. Metals are on the left side of the table, and nonmetals are on the right.
- The columns are referred to as groupings. The elements in the group have comparable characteristics.
In 1869 and 1870, Dmitri Mendeleev and Julius Lothar Meyer separately published periodic tables. Meyer, on the other hand, had already published an older edition in 1864. Mendeleev and Meyer both arranged elements by increasing atomic weight and elements by repeating properties.
Several prior tables were created. In 1789, Antoine Lavoisier classified elements into metals, nonmetals, and gases.
Alexandre-Emile Béguyer de Chancourtois published the telluric helix or screw periodic table in 1862.
This table was most likely the first to organize elements according to their periodic properties.
Who created the periodic table?
According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist and inventor, is regarded as the “father” of the periodic table.
Mendeleev was a prominent lecturer at a university in St. Petersburg, Russia, in the 1860s.
Mendeleev opted to produce one because there were no new organic chemistry textbooks in Russian at the time.
According to Khan Academy, while working on “Principles of Chemistry” (two volumes, 1868–1870), he also addressed the subject of disordered elements.
Putting the elements in any order would be quite challenging.
At the time, there were 63 known chemical elements, each with an atomic weight estimated using Avogadro’s hypothesis, which holds that equal volumes of gases store the same number of molecules when kept at the same temperature and pressure.
There were only two methods for categorizing these elements at the time: splitting them into metals and nonmetals or grouping them based on the amount of valence electrons in an element (or those electrons in the outermost shell).
According to Michael D. Gordin in his book, the initial section of Mendeleev’s book dealt with only eight of the known elements — carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, and iodine —
According to Michael D. Gordin’s book “A Well-Ordered Thing: Dmitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table,” those two tactics succeeded for those specific elements (Princeton University Press, Revised Edition 2018).
However, they were insufficient to sort the 55 additional chemical components known at the time.
According to the Royal Society of Chemistry, Mendeleev put each element’s attributes on cards and then began organizing them by increasing atomic weight.
This is when he began to notice certain sorts of elements emerging on a regular basis and discovered a link between atomic weight and chemical characteristics.
However, the precise Eureka! moment that led Mendeleev to the sorting approach that resulted in his complete periodic table remains a mystery.
The whole periodic table, Gordin noted, “is extremely difficult to reconstruct the process by which Mendeleev came to his periodic organization of elements in terms of their atomic weights.”
“The historian’s dilemma is that, whereas Mendeleev preserved practically every document and draft that passed through his hands once he believed he would become renowned, he did not do so prior to the creation of the periodic law.”
“There really are two basic ways that Mendeleev could have shifted from an awareness of the significance of atomic weight as a good classifying tool to a draft of a periodic system: either he wrote out the elements in order of atomic weight in rows and saw periodic recurrence, or he gathered various ‘natural groups’ of elements, such as halogens and alkali metals, and observed a growing weight pattern.” According to Gordin’s book, the only known comment from Mendeleev linked to his method came in April 1869, when he stated that he “gathered the bodies with the lowest atomic weights and placed them in order of their growth in atomic weight.”
Whatever his reasoning, Mendeleev eventually organized the elements by atomic weight and valence electrons. Not only did he allow room for yet-undiscovered elements, but he also predicted the properties of five of these elements and their compounds.
He submitted his findings to the Russian Chemical Society in March 1869.
According to the University of California, San Diego, his novel periodic system was published as an abstract in the German chemistry monthly Zeitschrift fr Chemie (Journal of Chemistry) later that year.
The periodic table’s structure allows us to detect correlations between elements at a glance and forecast properties of unknown, recently discovered, or undiscovered elements.
The periodic table has seven rows, which are referred to as periods.
Moving from left to right across a period, the atomic number of each element increases.
Metals are found on the left side of a period, while nonmetals are found on the right.
Moving down a period on the table results in the addition of a new electron shell.
Groups or families refer to the columns of items.
The groups are numbered 1 (alkali metals) to 18. (the noble gases).
Elements in the same group have the same valence electron configuration.
The atomic radius, electronegativity, and ionization energy of elements within a group follow a pattern.
Moving down a group, the atomic radius grows as each element gains an electron energy level.
Moving down a group reduces electronegativity because adding an electron shell pulls the valence electrons away from the nucleus.
As one moves down the periodic table, the ionization energy of elements decrease because it becomes easier to remove an electron from the outermost shell.
Blocks are periodic table parts that represent the atom’s outer electron subshell.
The first two groups (alkali metals and alkaline earths), hydrogen, and helium comprise the s-block.
Groups 13 through 18 are included in the p-block.
Transition metal groups 3 to 12 comprise the d-block.
The f-block is made up of two periods located beneath the main body of the periodic table (the lanthanides and actinides).
Metals, Metalloids, Nonmetals
Metals, metalloids or semimetals, and nonmetals are the three broad types of elements.
The periodic table’s metallic nature is strongest in the bottom lefthand corner, whereas the most nonmetallic elements are found in the upper righthand corner.
Metals make up the vast majority of chemical elements. Metals have a metallic shine, are hard, conductive, and may create alloys. Nonmetals are soft, colorful, insulators, and can form compounds with metals. Metalloids have qualities that are transitional between metals and nonmetals. Metals transition into nonmetals toward the right side of the periodic table. The metalloids were identified using a crude staircase pattern that began with boron and progressed through silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium. Other elements, such as carbon, phosphorus, gallium, and others, are increasingly being classified as metalloids by chemists.
Why Arrange Table Elements?
The contemporary periodic table of chemical elements is as familiar as a map of the earth, yet it was not always so evident.
Dmitri Mendeleev, the author of the periodic table, began collecting and organizing known properties of elements while traveling by train in 1869, as if he were playing a game.
He discovered groups of elements with similar features, but he also noticed that there were many exceptions to the emerging patterns.
Instead of giving up, he experimented with changing the measured property values to better fit the patterns!
In order for the patterns in his “game” to operate, he anticipated that certain elements needed exist that did not exist at the time.
There were many critics, and it took years for Mendeleev’s patterns to be accepted internationally, but after freshly discovered elements matched those predicted by Mendeleev, his patterns could not be disregarded. Furthermore, some of the “fudged” attributes were later recalculated and found to be substantially closer to his predictions.
Reading the Periodic Table
The periodic table provides a massive amount of data:
Number of atoms: The atomic number of an element is defined as the number of protons in its nucleus. The number of protons identifies what element it is and also influences the element’s chemical behavior.
Carbon atoms, for example, always have six protons, hydrogen atoms have one, and oxygen atoms always have eight. Different isotopes of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons; an element can also gain or lose electrons to become charged, in which case it is referred to as an ion.
Atomic symbol: The atomic symbol (also known as the element symbol) is an abbreviation used to indicate an element (“C” for carbon, “H” for hydrogen and “O” for oxygen, etc.). These symbols are used all around the world and are occasionally surprising. Tungsten, for example, has the symbol “W” since it is also known as wolfram. Furthermore, the atomic symbol for gold is “Au” since the Latin word for gold is “aurum.”
The average mass of an element given in atomic mass units is its standard atomic weight (amu).
Despite the fact that each atom has about the same amount of atomic mass units, the atomic mass on the periodic table is a decimal; this is because the number is a weighted average of the numerous naturally-occurring isotopes of an element based on their abundance.
An isotope is an element that has a varied number of neutrons in its nucleus.
(To determine the average number of neutrons in an element, subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass.)
Here’s how you’d compute the atomic mass of carbon, which has two isotopes:
Multiply the isotope’s abundance by its atomic mass:
Carbon-12: 0.9889 x 12.0000 = 11.8668
Carbon-13: 0.0111 x 13.0034 = 0.1443
Then add the outcomes:
11.8668 + 0.1443 = 12.0111 = carbon atomic weight
Elements 93-118 have the following atomic masses: According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is no “natural” abundance of lab-created trans-uranium elements (elements with atomic numbers greater than 92). According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) — the world authority on chemical nomenclature and terminology — for these elements, the atomic weight of the longest-lived isotope is stated on the periodic table. According to the LANL, these atomic weights should be considered provisional because a new isotope with a longer half-life (how long it takes for half of that element to decay) could be generated in the future.
This non-natural category also includes superheavy elements, or those with atomic numbers greater than 104.
The larger the nucleus of an atom — which grows with the amount of protons inside — the more unstable that element is in general.
According to the IUPAC, these outsized atoms are ephemeral, lasting only milliseconds before disintegrating into lighter elements.
The IUPAC, for example, certified superheavy elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 in December 2015, completing the table’s seventh row, or era.
The superheavy elements were created in a number of laboratories.
The following are the atomic numbers, temporary names, and official names:
- 113: ununtrium (Uut), nihonium (Nh)
- 115: ununpentium (Uup), moscovium (Mc)
- 117: ununseptium (Uus), tennessine (Ts)
- 118: ununoctium (Uuo), oganesson (Og)
How is the Periodic Table arranged?
The periodic table is divided into sections based on atomic weight and valence electrons. Mendeleev was able to use these variables to position each element in a certain row (called a period) and column (called a group). The table has seven rows and eighteen columns. Each element in the same row or period has the same number of atomic orbitals (the spaces where electrons exist). This means that all of the elements in the third period — sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, and argon — have three atomic orbitals in which their electrons are located. Furthermore, the column or group represents the number of electrons in the atom’s outermost shell; these are known as valence electrons, and these are the electrons that really can chemically connect with other elements’ valence electrons.
According to Lumen Learning, valence electrons can be shared with another element, a type of covalent bonding, or exchanged, a sort of ionic bonding.
For example, all of the atoms in the second column have two valence electrons, while all of the elements in the third column have three valence electrons.
The transition elements, which fill the shorter columns near the center of the periodic table, are an exception to this norm.
These transition components
Consider selenium, which has an atomic number of 34, implying that there are 34 total electrons in a neutral atom of selenium.
That means selenium has four atomic orbitals with electrons and six valence electrons, or six electrons in the outermost orbital.
You may also calculate the number of electrons in its first, second, and third orbitals:
The first orbital can only carry two electrons, whereas the second orbital has four suborbitals and hence can hold a total of eight electrons.
According to Florida State University’s Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, an atom’s third shell, which consists of nine suborbitals, may hold a maximum of 18 electrons
That means selenium has 2, 8, 18, and 6 electrons in each of its first, second, third, and fourth atomic orbitals.
How is the Periodic Table used today?
Scientists can determine which elements would be best for certain industries and processes by knowing that certain elements lumped together on the table have certain characteristics and behaviors.
According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, engineers use different combinations of elements in Groups III and V of the periodic table to generate novel semiconductor alloys such as gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN) (NIST).
Chemists and other scientists can use the table to forecast how different elements will react with one another in general.
Alkali metals, for example, are in the first column or group of the periodic table and contain one valence electron, carrying a charge of +1.
This charge indicates that they “react vigorously with water and mix readily with nonmetals,” according to chemist Anne Marie Helmenstine on ThoughtCo. Magnesium, which is in the same group as calcium on the periodic table, is becoming suitable as a component of alloys for bone implants, according to NIST. Because these alloys are biodegradable, they act as scaffolding and subsequently dissolve as normal bone forms on the structures.
Does the Periodic Table of Elements Change? If so, how and who accomplishes this?
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, or IUPAC, is in charge of the periodic table as we know it today (eye-you-pack).
While much of the information in the periodic table is stable and unlikely to change, the IUPAC organization is in charge of determining what needs to be altered.
They developed criteria for determining what constitutes the discovery of a new element.
Furthermore, any new element must be given a temporary name and symbol before being authenticated and given an actual name.
Such was the case when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recently evaluated elements 113, 115, 117, and 118 and decided to give them formal names and symbols (goodbye, ununseptium, and hello, tennessine!).
Atomic weights in a periodic table may appear to be constant.
The truth is that atomic weights have altered over time.
The IUPAC Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW) has been assessing atomic weights and abundances since 1899.
Carbon, for example, had an atomic weight of 12.00 in 1902 but is now [12.0096, 12.0116]!
Times have certainly changed, as the source of the sample determines the value.
Finally, IUPAC allocates collective names (lanthanoids and actinoids) and group numbers (1–18) and has explored the group 3 element membership.
PubChem is collaborating with IUPAC to make element and periodic table information machine-readable.
In the periodic table, what are metals?
Metals are to the left of the line (except for hydrogen, which is a nonmetal), nonmetals are to the right of the line, and metalloids are the elements immediately adjacent to the line.
What do you call 118 elements?
Nihonium, moscovium, tennessine, and oganesson are the permanent names for elements 113, 115, 117, and 118. Nihonium, moscovium, tennessine, and oganesson are the permanent names for elements 113, 115, 117, and 118. The elements were officially acknowledged by IUPAC at the end of 2015.
What are Z and a on the periodic table?
A = mass number = number of protons and neutrons in the most common (or most stable) nucleus; Z = atomic number = number of protons in the nucleus = number of electrons orbiting the nucleus;
The number of protons and neutrons in the most common (or stable) nuclear nucleus.
Are there 127 different elements?
Synthesis has been tried for all elements up to and including unbiseptium (#127) as of April 2022, with the exception of unbitrium (#123); the heaviest successfully synthesized element is oganesson in 2002, while the most recent discovery is tennessine in 2010.
Is there an element 119?
Ununennium is a hypothetical chemical element with the symbol Uue and the atomic number 119. It is also known as eka-francium or element 119. The temporary systematic IUPAC names and symbol, ununennium and Uue, are used until the element is identified, confirmed, and a permanent name is chosen.
Are there 140 elements?
Extended periodic table theories, on the other hand, speculated about chemical elements other than these 118.
Corbomite (Ct) is a chemical element with the atomic number 140. However, element 140 has yet to be discovered in real-life science.
What are the seven types of metals?
The metals of antiquity are the seven metals discovered and used by mankind in prehistoric times: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, iron, and mercury.
How do you play the periodic table game?
You can shift your flasks by spending energy tokens. You collect tokens from these locations based on specified movement patterns. But never both on the same turn when a player is exhausted.